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  • Pathology is the study of the effects and causes of injury & disease the word pathology refers to biological research in the field of medical terms.

  • The pathology branch refers to the medical science that involves the study of diagnosis through the evaluation of surgically removed tissues (biopsy samples), organs, and bodily fluids, and in some cases autopsy (whole body).

  • The pathology diagnosis explains the process of diagnosis that provides detailed information to clinicians and patients it helps in all aspects of patients from cancer diagnosis to chronic diseases with accurate results in a pathology lab test. The pathology test is the evaluation of body tissues including urine, blood, and faeces (poo).

Types of Pathology

General pathology

General pathology specifies a complex and vast field that includes the study of cells mechanism and tissues injury and briefly understanding the concept which includes neoplastic, necrosis inflammation, and wound healing

Clinical pathology

Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is more concerned with a disease and is based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids like tissues, homogenate blood, urine, or extracts using microbiology, hematology & tools of chemistry. 

Surgical pathology 

The study of surgical pathology includes the study of tissues that are removed from the body during the time of surgery. It helps to diagnose a disease and analyze the treatment process. Pathologist provides consultation services to a wide variety of organs to a subspecialist.

Paediatrics pathology

Pediatric pathology is a sub-specialty part of surgical pathology which mainly deals with the diagnosis of non-neoplastic and neoplastic diseases in children.


This type of pathology describes the study of nervous system tissues. The small form of surgical whole-body autopsies or biopsies.

Neuropathologists work under anatomic pathology but relatively work with neurology & neurosurgeons. It is also related to forensic pathology because brain-related diseases are sensitive and may cause death and injury.


Cytopathology is another part of pathology that help to study the diagnosis of diseases on the cellular level. It is commonly used in the investigation of diseases involving a wide range of body sites. it also helps to aid the diagnosis of cancer and also infectious diseases and other inflammatory condition.


This type of pathology is a sub-specialty of dermatologists which relates to skin diseases at disease at a microscope level. It is done both the ways by diagnosis and by individual patients through the examination of skin biopsies

Molecular pathology 

The pathology of molecular specifies the testing of nucleic acid within a clinical context. molecular diagnosis spans a range of human disorders, complication including infectious diseases and hereditary neoplastic.


What does a normal blood test show?


The blood test is done for white blood cells, hematocrits, and platelets. The complete blood count test can detect any skin infections disease, anemia, nutritional deficiency, bone marrow problems, or cancer. If any of the results are abnormal you may immediately consult a doctor for r specific doctor.



Liver Function Tests:

The liver function test (LFT) is a group of blood tests that analyze and measure some enzymes, proteins, and substances that are produced and exerted by the liver. The number of substances in the blood can be affected by injury. When performed these test gives the doctor a clear picture of the liver’s condition and provides further diagnostic tests.
There are many diseases, lifestyles, and infections that can cause liver damage.

The amount of damage may be before symptoms appear. 
Pathology is key to early diagnosis and effective treatment.

Full Blood Examination:

The FBE also called complete blood count which provides information about the number and development of cells in the blood.
The red blood cells that carry oxygen and which blood cells fight against platelets and infections that help the blood clot. 
If any of the abnormalities in the body can tell us a lot about the range of important conditions. which includes some nutritional factors, medication, and occasionally exposure to a toxic substance 

Abnormalities in a blood test can cause some sort of infections and some blood cancers.  

Iron Studies:

Iron studies tests are pathology tests and if a physician suspects that you have too less or too more iron in your body.

Iron play’s an important role in forming red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. low iron in the human body leads to fatigue and lack of activity. IRON deficiency also reflects poor dietary intake, and excessive loss through bleeding so it’s very important to find the cause of iron deficiency because it may cause underlying diseases.
A lot of iron in your blood - known as iron over-burden or hemochromatosis - builds the gamble of various difficult circumstances including liver sickness, cardiovascular breakdown, joint pain, and diabetes. Iron over-burden is asymptomatic until tissue harm begins to happen; harm which can be forestalled by early analysis.

The impacts of something over the top or too minimal iron are promptly treatable, particularly whenever distinguished early, making pathology tests significant in this condition.

TSH Quantification:

Thyroid function test 

This test is performed to screen diagnose and treatment for thyroid disorders such as not enough thyroid hormone (hypothyroid) or too much thyroid (hyperthyroid). These issues can happen precipitously or because of growth, pregnancy, infection, and some medication cases.

The test measures the amount of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) in the blood.

The thyroid function test is produced by the pituitary gland and acts as an agent telling the gland to start making hormones. In patients with a thyroid or pituitary illness, the informing framework gets unequal. Thyroid chemicals direct the scope of imperative physical processes including breathing, pulse and body weight, temperature, and general energy levels, so, fundamentally, they are created at the right levels.


A urinalysis is a test performed on an example of pee to search for a few metabolic problems (like diabetes) and kidney issues. A patient might be referred for urinalysis by the doctors in the scope of situations. Normal tests as a feature of urinalysis incorporate testing for pee protein, for instance during pregnancy, red cells for instance with kidney illness, and markers of diseases of the urinary tract.

INR (International Normalized Ratio):

This pathology test is utilized to check how well the drug this pathology test is used to check how well the clot-preventing medication, warfarin, is working. People with heart conditions, such as an irregular heartbeat, or after the replacement of a heart valve, may need to take this medication to prevent stroke. Other people may use warfarin to treat a current clot or reduce the risk of developing a clot in the legs or lungs during periods of risk, such as surgery.

The test estimates what amount of time it requires for somebody on warfarin to change from one protein (prothrombin) to another (thrombin) contrasted with somebody, not on this medication.  Patients on warfarin need to have the test performed routinely to screen the medication's viability and to permit the patient's doctor to change dose levels appropriately. 

Levels are impacted by diet, drugs, and changes in everyday well-being. in general, levels might deliver no symptoms but may increase the high risk of bleeding. warfarin is working. People with heart conditions, similar to a flighty heartbeat, or after the replacement of a heart valve, may need to take this medication to avoid stroke.

Full body examination
Iron Studies
TSH Quantification

Biochemistry or biological chemistry

Biological chemistry is also called biochemistry in the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms sub-discipline of both biology and Chemistry this biochemistry may be divided into three fields metabolism enzymology structure biology over the last tickets of the 28th century the branch of Biochemistry has been explaining the living process through their three disciplines most of the area of the life scenes and being developed through the biochemical methodology and research.

The study of Biochemistry focus on understanding the chemical basis which allows biological molecules to give a rise to the procedures that occurs within between living cells within sales in relating to understanding of tissues organs as well as living organism structures and function biochemistry is related to Molecular Biology which is the study of molecular mechanism of Biology most of the bio chemistry deals with the structure functions bonding and interactions of Biology micro molecule such as protein , micro acids, carbohydrates and lipids they provide the basic structure of cells and many function associated with life the chemistry of cells also depends reaction of Ions small molecules this can be inorganic example water metals ions or organic example amino acids where used to synthesise protein the metabolism means the process is used by sells to harness energy from their environment through chemical reaction finding of the biochemistry are applied primary in medicines agriculture and nutrition’s in this  field of medicine biochemistry investigate the corns and cause of disease nutrition study in deep how to maintain Wellness and health and also effect nutritional deficiencies in this field biochemist biochemistry only deals with nutrition but also soil fertilizers improving crops cultivation of crops and pest controls it also evaluate how the treatment is affecting certain organs and monetary cancer or any other health conditions as part of follow-up.

Most common Biochemistry tests

Comprehensive metabolic panel CMP includes an electrolyte panel liver function test kidney test and measures glucose and Calcium

kidney function test also known as renal panel measures creatinine and blood urea nitrogen

An electrolyte panel measures potassium Sodium and chloride Magnesium Bicarbonate and phosphate.

A basic metabolic panel BMP this test includes an electrolyte panel and kidney function test and also measures calcium and glucose.

Blood chemistry tests can be done to know:

  • Detailed information about your health.

  • Regular check-ups on how organs are working such as thyroid regular.

  • Check body electrolyte balance.

  • Help to diagnose diseases and conditions.

  • It provides the level of baseline chemicals to compare future blood chemistry test.


Microbiology is multiple units consisting of anaerobic bacteriology uranology mycology immunology HIV parasitology HIV laboratory (FICTC) micro mycobacteriology and Hospital infection control laboratory.

Branches of Microbiology


Bacteriology is the study of Bacteria

Bacteriology is a specialist of Biology that studies Ecology Genetics morphology and biochemistry of bacteria and all related aspects the subdivision of microbiology includes the identification and characterization and classification of bacterial species 



Immunology refers to the study of the human system and is a very important branch of biological science and medicine the immune system helps to fight against infectious diseases through various lines of Defence if the immense system is weak, it can cause disease and easily risk automatic immunity cancer.


Mycology is the study of fungi, such as yeasts and molds

Mycology is the study of fungi such as yeast and moles the study of fungi includes mushrooms and yeast many of the fungi are useful in medicine and the health industry. Mycological research used to development of such antibiotic drugs as penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline icon as meet Other Drugs which includes statins that lower cholesterol.


Nematology: the study of nematodes (roundworms)

Nematology this study refers to the consult of nematodes or roundworms



Parasitology is a scientific discipline concerned with the study of parasites and parasitic diseases including the distribution of physiology Molecular Biology Ecology evolution of Biochemistry and other clinical aspects


Phycology: the study of algae

Pychology is a scientific study of algae which is also known as algology part of a branch of Life Science this is important as a primary procedure in aquatic ecosystems most algae are photosynthetic organisms and eukaryotic. That is present in a wet environment.

Most common Microbiology tests

1. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Testing. 

It is a laboratory technique used to amplify a DNA sequence the method involves a short DNA sequence which is called primers to select the portion of the genome to be amplified.

2. Immunoassays

It is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of macromolecules to detect that immunoassay is more likely to be referred to as an analyte and in many cases of protein the molecules of other types can be of different size types long as proper antibodies 
which have required properties.

In biological liquid analytes such as urine or serum are most frequently measured through immunoassays for medical and research purposes.

3. Culture Media

It is also known as growth media which is a specific mixture of nutrients and other substances that help support the growth of micro-organisms such as fungi and bacteria (yeast & nodes).
A liquid of gelatinous substances containing nutrients in which tissues or microorganisms are cultivated.

 Common Laboratory Tests

  • Basic metabolic panel 

  • Lipid panel

  • Liver panel

  • Haemoglobin A1C

  • Comprehensive metabolic panel

  • Thyroid stimulating harmonic 

  • Prothrombin Time.

  • Complete blood count 

Ideas for helping children during blood tests

Parents or caregivers help to distract children at the time of blood test.

Toddlers (1 to 2 years)
They might like to watch toys or bubbles that move and things that make some catchy sound like light-up toys, magic wands, or pinwheels or they may want to hold their favorite toys.

Pre-schoolers (3 to 5 years)
Pre-schoolers might like to hold a toy or watch light-up toys which make sounds.

School-age children (6 to 12 years)

  • Bringing their favorite stuff or toys to distract 

  • Practise deep breathing or blow bubbles 

  • Making them imagine their favorite place 

  • Distracting them with video games, and music or make them find pictures in the book.

Teenagers (13 to 18 years)
Make them try to take a deep breaths or make them imagine their favorite place.

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